To determine direction without the aid of a compass, drive a 3-foot stick into the ground in a sunny location and set a stone at the tip of its shadow. Wait 20 minutes, then place another rock where the tip of the shadow has moved. The first marker indicates the west end of a line running between the two points; the second marks the east.

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To determine direction without the aid of a compass, drive a 3-foot stick into the ground in a sunny location and set a stone at the tip of its shadow. Wait 20 minutes, then place another rock where the tip of the shadow has moved. The first marker indicates the west end of a line running between the two points; the second marks the east.

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